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  • Chidi Ameke

AI & Society: Balancing Opportunities, Ethics, and Impact of Large Language Models (LLMs)

Updated: Aug 29, 2023

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Discover the transformative power of AI on society and how to foster accountability, unlock opportunities and mitigate misuse.

Navigate the complex terrain of AI, grasp the ethical responsibilities intrinsic to it, and learn how to strike a balance between the immense opportunities it offers, the ethical dilemmas it engenders, and the societal impacts of large language models (LLMs).

This thought-provoking article will give you the latest insights on optimally harnessing AI's potential for social advancement while adeptly minimising its associated risks and pitfalls.


Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become pervasive, subtly influencing our daily experiences. AI's footprint is wide-ranging, from curating personalised recommendations on streaming platforms to powering voice-activated home assistants. Its capabilities extend beyond enhancing productivity, generating content, image manipulation and enabling deep fakes.

AI has catalysed revolutionary changes across industries. In healthcare, it's paving the way towards a future of fewer diagnostic errors and improved patient outcomes through AI-assisted diagnostic tools. Businesses are harnessing its power to optimise operations. Even customer interaction with brands is transforming, with chatbots and virtual assistants providing evermore sophisticated round-the-clock support.

However, it's essential to recognise that AI is an evolving technology with some way to go before it is entirely dependable and safe. A significant concern is the potential misuse of biased datasets, which can produce unfair or discriminatory outcomes. This phenomenon has increasingly come under the spotlight. Furthermore, the spread of deep fakes, voice cloning, and weaponised disinformation poses severe threats to the integrity of our information ecosystem and the very foundation of democracy.

We must confront and address several critical issues to maximise AI's benefits while mitigating its risks. These include ethical AI development, safety research, appropriate legal frameworks, education, and public awareness.

In this article, we will cover the following critical themes:

  • Key Responsibilities in AI Development: Ethics, Safety, Regulations and Public Awareness

  • The Consequences of Neglecting AI Responsibilities

  • Understanding Large Language Models (LLMs): How They Are Shaping the Future

  • Artificial Intelligence in Society: Assessing AI's Pervasive Influence

  • Navigating AI Complexity: Balancing Growth and Societal Impact

  • Unlocking the Potential of AI: Revolutionising Healthcare, Education, and Beyond

Key Responsibilities in AI Development

Ethical AI Development Guidelines:

One of the significant responsibilities in AI development is to ensure ethical design and development with public safety as a priority. It involves creating AI that respects universally accepted human values and individual privacy, prevents harm, and avoids deepening societal inequalities. Meeting these responsibilities calls for collaborative efforts from government agencies, policymakers, scientists, engineers, and corporations in establishing and enforcing ethical standards for AI development.

Regulatory mandates could enforce the following 14 guidelines for ethical AI development:

  1. Developers must seek government licenses to develop and deploy large-scale AI models in the public domain, particularly those nearing Artificial General Intelligence (AGI).

  2. Legislation should mandate transparency in AI decision-making processes.

  3. Rigorous testing and validation standards for AI systems should be required, emphasising child safety.

  4. Mandate conducting impact assessments against specific criteria, with an independent governing body verifying the results and approving large-scale deployments (e.g., 100 million people or more).

  5. AI systems that discriminate against certain groups should be prohibited.

  6. AI systems that can predict public opinion and survey responses based on various factors should be prohibited.

  7. Define legal boundaries for AI development to ensure accountability for public safety.

  8. Prohibit providing direct-to-user medical advice to prevent misdiagnosis and harm.

  9. Sentient AI development for military applications, self-preservation, self-replication, and autonomous weapons should be prohibited.

  10. Prohibit training AI on personal data collected from social media and the internet.

  11. Disclose AI-generated and AI-manipulated.

  12. Legislation to safeguard individual digital identity, likeness, copyright, and intellectual property rights, ensuring all AI datasets are protected and used with proper licensing, consent, and permissions.

  13. Disclosure of the data used to train AI should be legislated, along with providing information about the model's performance (e.g., trustworthiness and accuracy) and continuous governance of AI models to maintain safety and ethical standards.

  14. Prohibit AI response to harmful requests, including those promoting violence, fraud, and self-harm.

These prerequisites ensure that AI systems are developed and used responsibly and ethically.

AI Safety Research:

Another vital aspect of AI development is understanding and mitigating the risks that AI might pose. These include unintended consequences such as indiscriminate exploitation of personal data, algorithmic biases leading to discrimination and prejudice, lack of transparency eroding public trust, the spread of disinformation, exacerbation of societal inequalities, and even the potential undermining of the judicial system through AI-assisted evidence fabrication and manipulation.

To protect the public from the potentially harmful use of AI, ongoing research and development are essential to proactively identify and address safety issues.

Legal and Regulatory Frameworks:

Another vital responsibility in AI development involves creating legal and regulatory frameworks. These frameworks need to balance the protection of society from potential harm with the encouragement of innovation and responsible AI deployment.

An international authority comparable to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) must be established to regulate AI development, particularly for artificial general intelligence (performing tasks and adapting knowledge as effectively or more so than humans) and AI superintelligence (surpasses rational human intelligence beyond executing tasks).

Policymakers are pivotal in establishing clear rules and regulations for AI technology. These include but are not limited to data privacy protections, intellectual property rights, and liability frameworks.

In addition, there's a need to establish a dynamic monitoring agency responsible for both pre-review and post-deployment monitoring of authorised AI systems.

Lastly, policymakers must ensure these frameworks are legally enforceable, with clear and significant consequences for violations and a viable mechanism to disable unauthorised AI systems swiftly and effectively.

Education and Public Awareness:

Raising public awareness and promoting understanding of AI's impact on society, its potential benefits, and risks is a crucial responsibility for policymakers. It requires investing in public education campaigns that provide accurate information about AI and its impact on society. Policymakers could also encourage the development of public-private partnerships that promote ethical AI development and create awareness-raising initiatives focused on the responsible use of AI.

Cross-Sector Collaboration:

Encouraging collaboration among governments, industries, engineers, academia, scientists, and civil society is a crucial responsibility for AI development. A coordinated approach is essential to navigate the intricacies of AI and responsibly harness its potential. Policymakers can foster cross-sector collaboration by establishing forums for stakeholders to share information, identify best practices, and work jointly on research and development projects. They can also drive public-private partnerships to shape AI technologies that are safe, ethical, and beneficial for society.

However, the path ahead is not without obstacles. Ethical AI development, for instance, necessitates the creation of clear and enforceable ethical standards—a demanding task considering AI's intricate nature and swift progression. Ensuring the safety of AI is another complex endeavour, especially as novel risks come to light with the technology's evolution. Legal and regulatory frameworks are equally challenging, needing to strike a balance between safeguarding society and nurturing innovation. Moreover, disseminating knowledge about AI to the public can be time-consuming due to its technical essence.

Cross-sector collaborations may also encounter hurdles in areas like intellectual property, competition, and varying interests among participants. Addressing these issues demands consistent collaboration and dedication from both policymakers and stakeholders. The magnitude of this undertaking is vast. The transformative quality of AI, with its sweeping reach and influence, can be likened to milestones like the internet, atomic energy, and the industrial revolution—each of which markedly transformed society and altered the course of human progress.

The Consequences of Neglecting AI Responsibilities

Written regulation

"AI risk has emerged as a global priority, ranking alongside pandemics and nuclear war. Despite its importance, AI safety remains remarkably neglected, outpaced by the rapid rate of AI development. Currently, society is ill-prepared to manage the risks from AI. CAIS exists to equip policymakers, business leaders, and the broader world with the understanding and tools necessary to manage AI risk." (source: CAIS)

Neglecting AI responsibilities can have far-reaching and severe consequences for society. An obvious example is the potential use of AI to create misinformation at scale to test and optimise messages that influence the outcome of elections. Furthermore, AI proprietors could use sophisticated algorithms to manipulate public sentiment to achieve their agendas. It could provide limitless power to the few, circumventing democracy and individual liberty.

A simple example of which AI could be easily misused is facial recognition technology. Facial recognition algorithms can identify and track individuals in real-time, potentially leading to privacy violations and other abuses. In 2018, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) conducted a study of Amazon's facial recognition software and found that it incorrectly matched 28 members of Congress with mugshots in a database. It demonstrates the potential for misusing these technologies; and highlights the need for rigorous ethical guidelines, human oversight and safety regulations.

Another example is the use of AI-powered hiring tools. AI tools are designed to screen job applicants and identify the most qualified candidates. However, they may inadvertently discriminate against certain groups based on biased data sets or flawed algorithms.

In 2018, Amazon abandoned an AI recruitment tool that was found to be biased against women. The tool was trained on resumes submitted to Amazon over ten years, most of which came from men. As a result, the tool rated male candidates higher than equally qualified female candidates. This case highlights the importance of responsible AI development and the potential for unintended consequences if AI is not designed with care and consideration.

Moreover, using AI in law enforcement poses significant concerns related to bias and discrimination. It is particularly relevant when police use facial recognition software to identify suspects without sufficient oversight or regulatory constraints. Critics point out that these technologies are prone to disproportionately misidentify people of colour, resulting in a higher risk of wrongful arrests and other rights violations. Such practices erode public confidence in law enforcement agencies and intensify societal disparities.

These examples demonstrate the potential consequences of neglecting AI responsibilities. Without careful consideration of the ethical implications and safety concerns, AI technologies can lead to discriminatory practices, privacy violations, and other harms. Therefore, prioritising these responsibilities and working towards developing and deploying AI ethically is essential. By doing so, we can ensure that AI benefits humanity while minimising its risks.

For more detailed examples of AI risks, visit the Center for AI Safety.

Follow this link to review Google's AI Principles and commitment to developing AI technologies responsibly.

Understanding Large Language Models (LLMs): How They Are Shaping the Future

Woman manipulating large dataset images

Language models, specifically Large Language Models (LLMs), are artificial intelligence constructs engineered to understand, generate, and manipulate human language. They're typically trained on expansive text datasets, allowing them to learn language structure, grammar, and patterns. While LLMs' primary function is to predict the next word in a given sequence or to generate coherent sentences based on a prompt, they offer a versatile toolset applicable to various domains.

LLMs have diverse applications, including text summarisation, translation, sentiment analysis, question answering, text classification, named entity recognition, conversational AI, creative writing, and more advanced tasks like image generation, code writing, complex reasoning, and interactive applications. These broad-ranging uses underscore LLMs' potential across multiple industries and disciplines, from natural language processing to social media. As AI research progresses, we can anticipate an expansion in the capabilities of LLMs, ushering in new opportunities for innovation, productivity and efficiency but also posing societal risks.

Here is a cursory glossary of the diverse applications of LLMs:

Text Summarisation:

LLMs can condense substantial text volumes into shorter, coherent summaries, preserving main ideas for easy comprehension.


LLMs can effectively translate text between languages, facilitating better cross-cultural communication.

Sentiment Analysis:

LLMs can gauge public sentiment or customer feedback by analysing text inputs.

Question Answering:

With their extensive knowledge base, LLMs can respond accurately to user queries.

Text Classification:

LLMs can categorise and organise text, making them useful in spam filtering, content moderation, and document management.

Named Entity Recognition:

LLMs can identify and classify text entities, aiding information extraction and data analysis.

Conversational AI:

LLMs have facilitated human-like conversations via chatbots and virtual assistants.

Creative Writing:

LLMs can generate unique content as valuable tools for writers and marketers.

Image Generation:

LLMs can create images based on memory or specific instructions.

Writing Programming Code:

LLMs can comprehend existing code and generate new ones as per provided instructions.

Solving Mathematical Equations:

LLMs can tackle complex logic-based reasoning challenges, including equation-solving.

Interacting With the World:

LLMs can utilise multiple tools to address intricate tasks.

Interacting With People:

LLMs can demonstrate a reasonable understanding of human psychology.

Using Complex Reasoning:

LLMs can apply reasoning to reach conclusions or make decisions.

Despite LLMs' transformative potential, there are concerns about their societal impact. For instance, they can generate misinformation like fake news or deepfakes, potentially destabilising democratic institutions. If trained on skewed datasets, LLMs can inadvertently perpetuate biases and discrimination, contributing to societal inequality. Concerns have been raised about racial profiling and civil rights violations in the context of predictive policing using LLMs. Their potential to automate tasks and replace human labour could widen socio-economic disparities.

LLMs' ongoing development and iteration should prioritise enhancing their safety and ethical framework. While the benefits of LLMs are clear, it is vital to address these risks. Ensuring ethical considerations and safety regulations guide their development and deployment will help to maximise their potential while minimising their negative societal impact.

Artificial Intelligence in Society: Assessing AI's Pervasive Influence

Medical professional woman innovating

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is becoming increasingly interwoven into our everyday lives, evolving and broadening its scope of influence. This growth is exemplified in the developing AI engines like Large Language Models (LLMs), which harness various machine learning disciplines. They treat a wide array of data — from images and sounds to complex Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data and DNA — as components of language models.

fMRI is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique allowing researchers to observe and measure brain activity. It detects blood flow changes in the brain associated with neural activity. Consequently, more active brain regions require more oxygen and nutrients, leading to increased blood flow to those areas. This method indirectly measures the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal to indicate neuronal activity. This development suggests that AI can interpret our thoughts in the future.

Used extensively in cognitive neuroscience and psychology, fMRI helps study various aspects of brain function, including perception, cognition, emotion, and decision-making. It provides detailed images of the brain and its activation patterns in response to various stimuli, thereby significantly expanding our understanding of the intricate relationship between brain structure and function.

LLMs have enabled the creation of AI models with emerging capabilities. They can, for instance, convert human language into images or reconstruct images from fMRI data and even interpret inner monologues. Inner monologues, or our internal dialogues, reflect our thoughts and emotions and are often used in literature to provide insight into a character's mind.

While AI does raise particular concerns — such as bias and job displacement — it's critical to comprehend its potential before it becomes irrevocably embedded in our society.

AI's transformative power, if responsibly harnessed, could bring about substantial advancements in areas like healthcare, productivity, efficiency, and personalisation.

However, acknowledging AI's limitations and potential risks is just as crucial. Technology is continuously evolving, and the future AI might vastly differ from today's AI. Additionally, there's a current deficiency in laws and regulations to safeguard against potential AI dangers, including privacy and security threats.

The ability of AI to process language and compound its knowledge and skills can lead to swift adaptation to new situations. While this may have positive implications, it could also introduce societal challenges. For instance, AI-driven news summarisation tools can adapt promptly to cover emerging topics, such as a sudden natural disaster, efficiently providing users with essential updates. Conversely, this same adaptability could facilitate the rapid spread of disinformation during political campaigns, cyber warfare, and geopolitical conflicts, posing challenges to society and democracy.

Therefore, adopting a proactive approach to AI regulation and establishing safeguards to mitigate potential risks is vital. However, the challenge lies in navigating the contest between democratic and autocratic nations with vested self-interests in strategic, economic, and military dominance. These factors complicate achieving effective global regulatory alignment.

Navigating AI Complexity: Balancing Growth and Societal Impact

AI looking at a secure lock

Another concern is the exponential growth of AI and its uncertain long-term alignment with human values. The rapid deployment of AI models with "emergent capacities", coupled with the potential for automated exploitation, cyber weapons, blackmail, and scams, warrants a cautious approach. For example, AI systems capable of persuasion beyond human capacity raise concerns about AI's capabilities and potential misuse.

AI models with "emergent capacities" have unanticipated or surprising abilities beyond their initial programming or training. These models may display traits or abilities that were not intended or anticipated, raising questions regarding their potential applications, ramifications, and misuse potential.

The race to deploy AI systems, such as chatbots and AI-driven productivity applications, has intensified, with tech innovators vying for users' attention. The potential for AI to enable harmful behaviours or provide inappropriate advice, especially to children, highlights the need for a more responsible approach to AI development.

Moreover, the gap between AI development and safety research and profit-oriented companies driving most AI research raises ethical concerns. Addressing these challenges requires an honest debate and giving society a voice in AI's future rather than leaving it to a few powerful corporate entities.

Drawing lessons from the past, such as the threat of nuclear war, we must create institutions and regulations to address the existential challenges posed by AI. A coordinated effort among world leaders is essential to ensure the responsible integration of AI into all societies.

Collaboration among governments, industries, and academia is crucial for establishing ethical guidelines and best practices in AI development. By pursuing interdisciplinary research and communication, we can imbue AI with an ethical decision-making framework, safety, and privacy.

Transparency in AI research and development is essential to maintain public trust and foster responsible innovation. Sharing knowledge and insights while respecting intellectual property rights can help create a collaborative environment for addressing the challenges posed by AI.

Education and public awareness about AI's capabilities, limitations, and potential impact on society are necessary for informed decision-making. By promoting AI literacy and fostering an understanding of the technology, individuals and communities can better navigate the complexities of AI integration into their daily lives.

Unlocking the Potential of AI: Revolutionising Healthcare, Education, and Beyond

Technologically rendered earth

AI holds significant potential to improve our quality of life, enhance productivity, solve complex societal challenges, and unleash creativity. We can harness its potential with appropriate oversight and robust ethical frameworks.

Below, we explore some of the transformative promises that AI offers.


Artificial intelligence is revolutionising healthcare. Using AI-based algorithms, medical data and image analysis can identify diseases, forecast patient outcomes, suggest individualised treatment regimens, and even create novel medications. For instance, the COVID-19 pandemic extensively used AI to monitor the virus's transmission, diagnose cases, and create a vaccine.


AI can offer individualised learning experiences, bridging learning gaps and creating resources for underprivileged pupils. Additionally, it can automate administrative work, giving teachers more time to concentrate on teaching.


There are several ways to identify and solve some environmental problems using AI. For instance, AI systems could monitor wildlife populations and behaviours for conservation efforts, predict and manage energy use to make buildings more energy efficient and analyse climate data to deliver more precise predictions of environmental changes.


AI automation improves productivity and economic growth, allowing organisations to perform more tasks with fewer resources. Simultaneously, new AI technologies are creating novel industries and job opportunities. Despite these benefits, AI also presents challenges. It is disrupting numerous jobs and sectors, necessitating the urgent need for workforce upskilling and retraining to ensure societal stability. Moreover, we must also accelerate AI innovations that promote the green economy to ensure our environment's protection and sustainability.


AI is improving the safety and effectiveness of transportation. AI will power autonomous vehicles to navigate, potentially reducing the number of traffic incidents significantly. AI can improve traffic flow and lessen congestion in urban areas.

Public Safety and Security:

AI has the potential to significantly enhance public safety and security through the use of cybersecurity, disaster response, and predictive policing. AI algorithms can analyse vast data volumes to find trends humans would overlook to assist in stopping crime and cyberattacks.


AI technology can provide greater independence in the lives of persons with disabilities. For instance, predictive text and speech-to-text technologies can help people with movement impairments communicate more efficiently. At the same time, AI-powered voice assistants can assist people with visual impairments navigate the internet.


One way AI is changing agriculture is through precision farming, which enables farmers to make better decisions about the crops to grow, the best time to plant them, and how to manage pests and illnesses. As a result, crop yields may increase and enable sustainable use of resources.

As stewards of our shared future, the power to shape tomorrow resides in our collective will. We must reach a consensus on the vision of a better world, thus ensuring our path forward is forged by doing the right thing and not left to AI to decide what is best for humanity arbitrarily.

Get in touch to continue the conversation.

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